Food allergy diagnosis methods include a variety of approaches that aim to accurately identify and confirm food allergies in individuals. These methods range from clinical history and physical examination to laboratory tests and challenge tests.
One commonly used method is the oral provocation test (OPT), which is considered the most effective method for diagnosing a food allergy (Espinosa et al. 2686). The OPT involves the controlled ingestion of the suspected allergen under medical supervision to observe any allergic reactions. However, the OPT should only be performed by trained personnel in a clinical setting with the necessary equipment and drugs in case of an emergency (Espinosa et al. 2686).
Another reliable method for diagnosing or ruling out food allergies is the double-blind placebo-controlled food challenge (DBPCFC) (Winberg et al. 282-287). This method involves the administration of gradually increasing doses of the suspected allergen and a placebo in a blinded manner to determine if an allergic reaction occurs. The DBPCFC is considered the gold standard for diagnosing food allergies (Winberg et al. 282-287).
Skin prick tests (SPTs) are commonly used in the diagnosis of immunoglobulin E (IgE)-mediated food allergies (Terlouw et al. 475). The SPT involves pricking the skin with a small amount of the suspected allergen and observing for a localized allergic reaction. However, the availability of commercial food allergen extracts for SPTs is limited, leading to the need for alternative extraction methods (Terlouw et al. 475).
Specific IgE testing is another diagnostic method used to detect allergen-specific IgE antibodies in the blood (Liu et al. 673-679). This test measures the level of IgE antibodies produced in response to specific allergens and can help identify potential food allergies. Additionally, specific IgE testing of allergen components can provide more detailed information about the specific allergens involved (Ito 59-69).
Clinical history and physical examination are important components of food allergy diagnosis (Koplin 661-662). These methods involve gathering information about the individual's symptoms, medical history, and exposure to potential allergens. This information can help guide further diagnostic testing and determine the likelihood of a food allergy.
In some cases, alternative diagnostic methods such as kinesiology, IgG testing, pulse testing, and water fast have been depicted in online sources like YouTube (Reddy et al. 410-416). However, these alternative methods have not been shown to be reliable or supported by scientific evidence (Reddy et al. 410-416).
It is important to note that the diagnosis of food allergies can be complex and may require a combination of different methods to achieve an accurate diagnosis. The choice of diagnostic method depends on various factors, including the individual's symptoms, medical history, and the suspected allergens involved.
In summary, food allergy diagnosis methods include the oral provocation test, double-blind placebo-controlled food challenge, skin prick tests, specific IgE testing, clinical history, and physical examination. These methods are used to accurately identify and confirm food allergies in individuals. The choice of diagnostic method depends on various factors and should be performed by trained personnel in a clinical setting. Alternative diagnostic methods without scientific evidence should be avoided.
- Espinosa, Rocio, et al. "A Proof-of-concept Of Label-free Biosensing System For Food Allergy Diagnostics In Biophotonic Sensing Cells: Performance Comparison With Immunocap". Sensors, vol. 18, no. 8, 2018, p. 2686.
- Ito, Komei, et al. "Diagnosis Of Food Allergies: the Impact Of Oral Food Challenge Testing". Asia Pacific Allergy, vol. 3, no. 1, 2013, p. 59-69.
- Koplin, Jennifer, et al. "Explaining the Link Between Maternal Lipid Profiles And Food Allergy In Offspring". Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, vol. 144, no. 3, 2019, p. 661-662.
- Liu, Mona, et al. "Tree Nut Allergy: Risk Factors For Development, Mitigation Of Reaction Risk and Current Efforts In Desensitization". Expert Review of Clinical Immunology, vol. 11, no. 5, 2015, p. 673-679.
- Reddy, Keerthi, et al. "Youtube and Food Allergy: An Appraisal Of The Educational Quality Of Information". Pediatr Allergy Immunol, vol. 29, no. 4, 2018, p. 410-416.
- Terlouw, Severina, et al. "Homemade Food Allergen Extracts For Use In Skin Prick Tests In the Diagnosis Of Ige-mediated Food Allergy: A Good Alternative In The Absence Of Commercially Available Extracts?". Nutrients, vol. 14, no. 3, 2022, p. 475.
- Winberg, Anna, et al. "New Validated Recipes For Double-blind Placebo-controlled Low-dose Food Challenges". Pediatr Allergy Immunol, vol. 24, no. 3, 2013, p. 282-287.